Water shortage poses a serious challenge due to different factors such as climate change and population growth in the world.
Last year, the World Health Organization published statistics that 50 percent of the world population would suffer water shortage in 2025. The World Meteorological Organization estimated five years ago that 15 percent of the world population would face intense water scarcity in the same year.
This suggests that water shortage may grow worse than expected in the future.
Egypt can be cited as a typical example. The Egyptian foreign minister said in a letter sent to an organization of the UN in June last year that “Egypt is the driest country in the Nile River basin. Only seven percent of the country’s territorial area is suitable for the living of humans due to water shortage. Our country is one of the countries whose drinking water is the scarcest in the world”. Earlier, the UN published a report that freshwater might be unavailable in Egypt in 2025.
The population of Egypt was 10 million in 1870, and water resource per capita was 6 000 cubic metres. According to information released by a relevant organ of the country in February last year, the country’s total population exceeded one hundred million level, but the water resource per capita amounts to 560 cubic metres at present. Analysts asserted that the rapid increase of population was the main cause that brought about water shortage in Egypt.
Water scarcity was measured seriously in Istanbul, Turkey, in summer last year. It is reportedly attributable to the fact that rainwater could not be stored due to the shortage of green areas, plus less rainfall and lingering dry weather. So the water level of reservoirs, which are used to supply the water to the city, dropped to a record low. The Istanbul city authorities expressed concern, saying that the city will suffer from unheard-of water scarcity in a few years in the future, unless proper measures are taken.
Early last year, about 80 000 families suffered water shortage due to the inflow of saline water from the sea and drought in a dozen regions of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, and a large amount of crops suffered damage.
More and more countries over the world are now paying attention to resolving the ever-worsening water scarcity.
They are now working hard to develop different technologies including those of converting seawater into freshwater, extracting water in the air and minimizing the consumption of water in farms. Efforts are being made briskly to introduce sci-tech findings while focusing on information activities related to water saving.